Ramadan, which is an element of Islam is the most beloved worship in the sight of Allah, its award is only by Allah, begins on Sunday, May 27th. Molla Abdurrahman İçlek, the President of the Scientific Research Commission of the Mustazafs Association and also the members of the Scholars and the Madrasahs Association, answered the questions to the ILKHA regarding the importance, the nature, the important days and nights of this month and the zakat.
Here are questions about the month of Ramadan, which is the month of mercy and forgiveness, and the answers given.
“Ramadan is the sultan of other months”
What is the meaning and term of Ramadan?
Ramadan is a word derived from ra-me-de. Ramda means very hot temperature. But the term is the name of a lunar month, name of a month from 12 months. When a man keeps himself from eating a drinking means ‘siyam’. But Ramadan itself is the name of a month from 12 months. The month of Ramadan is a blessed month and is the sultan of the other months.
“One who says 'Fasting is not fardh' comes out of Islam'
When the month of Ramadan was became a religious duty? What its place in Islam? Have its conditions changed when the Prophet was alive?
The month of Ramadan became a religious duty in the second year of Hegira. It is a religious duty and must to perform. Also its one of the five pillars of Islam. If a man does not fast, it is like a great sin. But unless man denies, he will not come into disbelief. Who says ‘Fasting is not supposed’ enters in infidels, comes out of Islam. Also no changes were made to the Ramadan fasting when our Prophet was alive.
'It make convenient to imitate imams in worship'
Is it possible to intend the entire Ramadan fasting to the first night of the Ramadan?
According to Imam Shafi’i, the intention of the month of Ramadan is to say the intent of fasting every night. Absolutely intention words must be said in mouth or in heart. To say words is Sunnah, but what is supposed to be is to say in the heart. It is necessary to say from the heart saying 'I will fast tomorrow'. However, according to Imam Maliki, if we imitate to Imam Maliki, it is enough to say 'I intend to fast every day of Ramadan' in the first night of Ramadan. For this reason, it is best for every Muslim to imitate Imam Maliki and say this intention on the first night of Ramadan. Imam Maliki is easy to imitate. According to Imam Shafi'i, every night a man must have an intention. This is also the intention when a person gets up in the middle of night to eat and drinks water with the intention of being hungry tomorrow.
'Children and people with mental health are not supposed to fast”
Who is not obliged to fast?
Fasting is not obliged to children and people with mental health. It is fardh for sick and traveler but they are permitted not to fast.
'Ramadan will last 29 days this year'
When does Ramadan start this year and how many days will it take? When does the first sahur and tarawih prayer begin?
The month of Ramadan begins on May 27 this year. The first tarawih prayer starts on Friday, May 26th. On May 27, we will get up for the first sahur. Ramadan this month will last 29 days in total.
'In Islam, worships became fardh according to the lunar months”
Why does Ramadan start 10 days earlier each year? Which calendar is followed in Islam based on worship?
The year is divided into two as solar and lunar. The lunar year take 355 days and the solar years are 365 days. So the lunar is coming back 10 days in each year. Ramadan and the hajj prayer were fixed according to the lunar months. Because Ramadan is calculated according to the lunar year, the Ramadan month starts 10 days earlier every year.
'Spending Qadr night properly equal to the worship of 83 years”
What important worship and blessed nights are there during Ramadan? When is the Qadr night this year? What is the point of Qadr night, what should be done tonight?
Qadr night is the blessed night in Ramadan. Qadr night falls on June 21 this year. Allah has revealed a Surah about the night of Qadr. Almighty Allah has revealed the Qur'an in this night, and this night is better than a thousand months. A thousand months is about 83 years. If you spend this night with a right of worship, it is like 83 years spent in worship. It is such a virtuous one. There are seventy times more rewards than all worshiping during Ramadan. Besides, it is necessary to read lots of Qur'an, make a dhikr and make tarawih prayers. It is an important ibadah to enter into the I?tik?f which is the Sunnah of our Prophet during the last 10 days of Ramadan.
'Fitrah alms clears both the soul and the worship'
What is the Fitrah alms, when and in what kind should it be given?
Fasting of a man does not come to the acceptance if he does not give Fitrah alms. Fitrah alms is a fardh for him. According to Imam Shafi'i, the Fitrah alms can be given from the first day of Ramadan. Fitrah alms is an acquittal. It cleanses the man's behavior, and the acquittal the soul. According to Imam Shafi'i, the Fitrah alms must be given as wheat or cereal. But according to Imam Hanafi, his price can also be given. The most appropriate is to give money. According to Imam Shafi’i, two and a half kilos of wheat should be given. It is suitable to give 10 liras or more.
'If zakat is given in the true sense, it will not remain poor on earth'
Muslims prefer Ramadan as start in order to give their zakat, is this mandatory? What is the precaution of zakat and the provision in Islam?
Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. If a human being denies the pillar of zakat, he or she will go into disbelief. If no zakat is given, a great sin is committed. Allah Almighty has threatened the people in the Qur'an regarding zakat. In hell, the property of one who does not give zakat will be a snake and will be thrown into someone's throat. The person will not give his zakat, will burn in hell with the gold he has accumulated. This is why zakat is a very important worship.
Zakat is given annually. In other words, when the trade is over a year passed, its zakat must be given. Giving a charity in Ramadan is like giving 70 charity. It is considered to make a fardh prayer 70 fardh prayer. It is more appropriate for Muslims to give their zakats in this month. Because reward is twice as much this month. How will he give his wisdom to human Ramadan?
If zakat is given in the true sense then it will not be poor on earth. Allah Almighty has forbidden the interest to have too much wealth. In order to have a balance between human beings, Allah Almighty, made zakat fardh. There was no poorer in the centuries when zakat was given to them. Even the unmarried young people were married with the zakat.
'To put meal into the bin is Israf”
How should Iftaar meals be?
It is sunnah for a man to eat only one kind of meal, but a few kinds of food is also possible which is permissible. But meal shouldn’t be thrown into the bin. To put meal into the bin is israf. It is not forbidden for a person to buy a few clothes, or if they cook a few kind of meal but do not put into the bin is not forbidden.
'On the eids offended people should be reconciled, relatives, neighboring houses should be visited'
What day of Ramadan coincides with this year? What is the point of Eid prayers and what should be done on the eid?
Eid al-Fitr coincides with the 25th day of June this year. According to Imam Shafi’i, the Eid prayer is a Sunnah. According to Imam Hanafi, the holiday prayer is necessary. Again according to Imam Hanafi, who does not perform the prayer of the eid is considered a sinner. But according to Imam Shafi'i, the one who perform eid prayer gain to much goodness and if does not perform then do not get any sin.
We must especially enjoy the children in the eid. We have to reconcile the disgruntled. Relatives and neighbors should be visited. We must strengthen the links with relatives.
'Fasting in 6 days Shawwal considered to fasting the whole year”
How many days is the Shawwal fast?
Shawwal fasting is a fast that starts to be performed after the first day of Eid al-Fitr. It is Sunnah to fast for 6 days. After the first day of the eid, it would be better to fast the Shawwal consecutively. Hadith also points to this. (M. Fatih Akgül - ILKHA)